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Journal of Field Archaeology Bioinformatics Berg Pub Limited.

Homogeneity among taxa was tested using chi-square tests of contingency tables of nucleotide counts, as implemented in MEGA2. Number of transitions, transversions, and changes per codon position were counted through the program MacClade 3.

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All characters were analyzed as unordered, except for converted amino acid sequences. The Dolichotis patagonum sequence was assigned as the outgroup. The branch-and-bound option was used to identify the most parsimonious tree s.

Heuristic bootstrap analysis with 1, replicates were run, and Bremer decay indexes AutoDecay 4. Additionally, we examined short sequences bp from two domestic guinea pigs and eight wild ones.

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Maximum-parsimony analysis detected parsimony-informative characters and generated equally parsimonious trees, with no significant differences among them Kishino-Hasegawa test as implemented in PAUP. The consensus MP tree Fig. All nodes, excluding node i, had high bootstrap and Support Index values numbers above and below branches in Fig. The alternative tree forced to join C. Similar results were obtained by further MP analysis adding short sequences from other specimens Table 1.

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Maximum-likelihood analysis -ln L Bootstrap values replicates were also high, including those of the C. Forcing Chile dating online. Further analysis of specimens with short sequences not shown placed the Peruvian specimen from Arequipa within node h.

Mean generalized "p" and K2P distances between the sequences of C. When C. By contrast, the mean distance values between C. Non-silent substitutions were analyzed by transforming the total evidence matrix for this coding gene into amino acid sequences. A total of characters resulted, of which 51 were parsimony-informative.

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Most nodes of the amino acid-based consensus MP tree Fig. Node f grouped C. Although node g had weak support, it was defined by a single derived substitution. Node h with three South American domestic guinea pigs appeared once again with high support, diagnosed by two derived amino acids Fig. Percent bootstrap support 1, replicates appears above branches; Bremer Decay indices are below in italics.

Lower case letters a-j designate nodes. Árbol de consenso más parsimonioso a partir del análisis MP de igual peso de las secuencias mitocondriales del gen para citocromo b.

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Porcentaje de apoyo en remuestreos 1. Letras minúsculas a-j designan nodos.

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Numbers after taxonomic names are LCM collection numbers. Abbreviations as in Fig. Números después de nombres taxonómicos son de la colección LCM. Chile dating online de remuestreo chile dating online.

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Abreviaturas como en Fig. Dolichotis sequence was designated as the outgroup; characters were ordered accordingly.

Site number below, followed by the shared amino acid substitution.

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Árbol MP de consenso basado en aminoácidos inferidos del citocromo b 51 fueron informativos. La secuencia de Dolichotis fue designada como grupo externo; los caracteres fueron consecuentemente ordenados.

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Número del sitio debajo, seguido por la sustitución aminoacídica compartida. Generalized and K2P molecular distances between domestic guinea pigs and C. MP and ML analyses grouped them in the monophyletic node f Fig.

Certainly, the clade C. Therefore, C. Whether C. Nevertheless, the genetic distance between them 7. Moreover, the lowest distance value between C. Further sequencing of Bolivian and western Paraguayan samples would help to clarify this issue.

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All domestic guinea pig sequences tend to cluster in a single lineage node g; Fig. Sampling from other European countries, United States and South America could provide additional support for the monophyletic origin of C.

The C. Indeed, our molecular analyses suggest that "mejorados" share a most recent common ancestor with the European guinea pig node j in Fig. This idea should be tested with other molecular markers in wider samples.

On the other hand, all "criollo" sequences marked d in Table 1 and figures never clustered with the "mejorado" lineage, nor formed a group by themselves except in a low supported node of the ML tree Fig. The particular and highly supported node h of creole C. Further studies on rural communities should uncover other pre-Columbian breeds along the Andes. We thank J. Chile dating online Universidad de Chile for sharing laboratory facilities, and to M. Kunz and J.

Oyarce for technical assistance in collecting and care of animals.

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Nature Berg Pub Limited. Journal of Mammalogy Food Agricultural Organization Monographs Italy Journal of Molecular Evolution