Keywords: Readings, Woman, Enlightenment, Romanian Society Că nu este alta şi mai frumoasă şi mai de folos în toată viaţa omului zăbavă decât cetitul cărţilor Miron Costin s reflection from the foreword of De neamul moldovenilor, towards which many of the historians of culture have turned to with admiration, almost became a typical collocation when the researchers interest pointed to the study of reading practices in Romanian society at the end of the Middle Age. The transformation in animal-warrior was made after an initiatory fight during which the courage of the candidate was put to the test.
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The qualities of a good language learner. The drawbacks and advantages of boarding-school education. The influence of education on personality. What is success in education? Is education motivated by self-interest? The more you learn, the less you know - what do you think about learning? This presentation concentrates on the shopping streets and places that anyone is most likely to visit.
The best known street for shopping in London is Oxford Street, where you can buy souvenirs, clothes, and so on. The good news about shopping at Oxford Street is that so many big retailers are represented here that you will be spoilt for choice.
The bad news is that you may have to be prepared to struggle from store to store.
To avoid the worst of the crowds you have to be an early riser and come between 9am and 10am, when most of the other London shoppers are either in bed or having a breakfast. With Oxford Circus tube station on one end, and Piccadilly Circus on the other, this street is packed with all kinds of shops. Packed with all kinds of toys this shop will make a hole in your pocket from demands from your children.
These streets have designer shops ready to dazzle you. Most stores have a doorman who is there to open the doors for you, smile at you and wish you a nice day. According to Michel de Certeau 4, the text is important only through those who actually read it, it changes along with them and is systematized on other perception codes.
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During the last years, researches on the history of culture have brought a displacement of the interest from book to reading and some of 1 Roger Chartier, Lecturi şi cititori în Franţa vechiului Regim, Bucureşti, Editura Meridiane, ; Roger Chartier, Guglielmo Cavallo, Histoire de la lecture dans le monde occidental, Paris, Ėditions du Seuil, ; Robert Darnton, Marele masacru al pisicii şi alte episoade din istoria culturală a Franţei, Iaşi, Editura Polirom, Răzvan Theodorescu, Civilizaţia românilor între medieval şi modern.
Orizontul imaginiivol. Histoire, Science Sociales,no.
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But it is so difficult to investigate the practice of reading, because it leaves no tangible traces, but can only be perceived in an infinity of some other cultural gestures. In this reading file, succeeding the hermeneut Paul Ricoeur, historians have also highlighted the role of the reader, without him the text having no real significance. Therefore, we intend to delineate the practice of reading in the feminine universe of Romanian elite, a sequential subject that is situated at the frontier between the history of books and that of woman s.
If the history of book has initiate the investigation of the past practices of reading, the history of woman continues to be a subject that has been gradually delineated inside the European and American historiography, its study being accelerated by the women s lib of the 70 s and its specific questions raised by the context.
From time to time, there were certain historiographycal assessments, under the form of interrogation, that had been attached to the researches on the women s role, her involvement in quotidian life, her relation with state authority, family etc.
Do women have a history? Finally, inat the colloquy from Rouen, the initial question has been transformed into Is it possible to have a history without women?
Не знаю, - ответила .
According to Michelle Perrot s opinion, an eminent researcher of the subject, the history of woman has answered to a double will: that of crashing the silence surrounding women s existence and, on the other side, that of making more visible their role in time. By recovering their traces, historiography enriches its discourse about the economical, social, political, cultural, simbolistical problematics 6. In a methodological and interpretative progress, the studies have delineated monographs or group portraits, have enlightened the relation between public and private, the woman s role inside the community, fashion, travelling, the exile, reading, love, thus passing from meditations on the subject what women are?
After Histoire mondiale de la femme, froma synthesis coordinated by Pierre Grimal, a specialist in Roman history, who has admitted the scientific importance of the researches over the woman statute in history, passing through the challenges of the generation that has been defined itself as bearer of the discourse La Nouvelle Histoire, up to the Storia dating văzând pe altcineva Donne, the synthesis of the 90 s, coordinated by Michel Perrot and George Duby 8, that legitimates these days the history of women as a distinctive direction in historical researches, we may witness a passionate polemic between gender studies and women studies.
Far from being finished, it proves the selfhood of European discourse of researches as compared to the American one, especially if we count that women studies partisans consider that a history of the gender would guise women again, by opposing the two words, Herstory and Hi s -story, in a concise formula and an untranslatable wordplay 9.
Sounding the past practices of reading is an interesting means of understanding the cultural practices of that time. But the sources we might use to make such a historical reconstruction are quite few and fragmentary: in this case of feminine elite, most of the testimonies are indirect.
However, we consider that the use of sources like these, may offer suggestions, hypothesis, approximations, interrogations. In order to delineate the feminine reading features, we have chosen to strike out three different directions of investigating the Romanian society of the XVII th -XVIII th centuries: the patronage over the printing activities, feminine book donations and reading, as individual way of selfperfection.
Considering the patronage over the books, as recognition of the patron s spiritual interest for that specific book, according to Professor Alexandru Duţu s assertion 10, we must point out the importance of Matei Basarab s age.
It has brought the resumption of typographic activity in Wallachia, which can not be considered as a temporary cultural success, but also in the terms of strengthening the monarchic authority It is, in fact, a real typographical revulsion that may be noticed in the four typographic centres, CâmpulungGovoraDealu Monastery and Târgovişte 7 Ibidem. The typography of Câmpulung has replaced Matei Basarab s patronage on that of Melchisedec, the monastery superior, but the other centres have continued their activity as lordly typographies, by printing, at the same miracle watts dating istoric, Slavonic, Slavo-Romanian and Romanian books.
In this cultural climate, alongside lordly patronage, Udrişte Năsturel has been asserted himself as a real spiritual coordinator of those times.
The Voivode s brother-in-law, translator and intimă dating în marea britanie of some coats of arms poems, he was representing the aulic Orthodox current and he was also member of the socalled court culture By his quill, as a representative figure of the nobility elite, we may foresee some of his sister s cultural profile, Elena, Radu Năsturel s daughter and Matei Basarab s wife.
Even if we do not know many of her education, we may presume that she could speak Greek; as the wife of the Wallachian voivode, she has been associated with Matei Basarab in his cultural patronage. Although the researches of women history have been for a long time tributary to some anecdotic and sententious reconstructions, even romanticized, the recent studies, as those signed by Violeta Barbu, Maria Magdalena Szekely, Sorin Iftimi, Dan Horia Mazilu 14 are trying to pull out of the anonymity the women statute and their destiny in Romanian past history.
Therefore, we must point out the dedicatory verses that Udrişte Năsturel wrote to his sister, laudable verses, when publishing the Romanian translation of Imitatio Christi, at Dealu Monastery, inwhich is more than an eulogistic canon, a possible evoluționați dating concerning Elena Basarab s cultural horizon In this stage of Romanian typographic activity, when the religious texts were quite prevailed, along with those of moral education, the praises dedicated miracle watts dating istoric Elena Năsturel do not surpass the religious terms.
According to the time mentality, women were strongly influenced by their readings, that is why 12 Barbu Theodorescu, Repertoriul cărţii româneşti vechi, in Biserica Ortodoxă Română,no.
Dregători şi slujitori ai doamnelor Moldovei, in Anuarul Institutului de istorie A. Xenopol,vol. Năsturel, Genealogia Năsturelilor, in Revista pentru istorie, arheologie şi filologie, vol. XI, part I,p 18 Corina Teodor we have to admit as undercurrent the men s surveillance over the texts women were about to read; but in Elena s case, considering that Matei Basarab was not an erudite person, this surveillance was not her husband s prerogative, but of her brother s, Udrişte Năsturel, whose connections with the intellectual and Orthodox circles were miracle watts dating istoric known The feminine elite s involvement in endowing churches and monasteries with religious books, as we may conclude by studying the text s marginal inscriptions, is also due to the religious context of the time.
Women s intention was to enrich the properties of the churches, as they were seen both as res sacra the properly edifice and all those goods used for the religious services, including booksand as res ecclesiastica meaning territorial possessions, financial goods, animals During the last decades, historians have studied the act of founding as connected miracle watts dating istoric religious mentality and it is seen as some kind of bridge between man and God; the founder tries this way to achieve the holly grace Books and manuscripts donation surpasses the religious significance; there is also a cultural purport, because of the books circulation within the entire Romanian territory, even beyond state frontiers.
We will try to illustrate a few sequences of the books itinerary, in order to reveal the manner the feminine elite became part of such a cultural experience. There is a book, Evanghelie, at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre from Jerusalem, with the portraits of Matei Basarab and Elena, and the Greek denotation reminds us that is has been the voievod s donation Ecaterina, Vasile Lupu s second wife, has redeemed from the Kazahs a Liturghier, a manuscript ornamented by Anastasie Crimca with some miniatures.
The manuscript has been taken away from Dragomirna Monastery, but it was brought back due to Ecaterina s initiative Vasile Lupu s daughter, Ruxandra, is also mentioned in documents; she has offered two books, Minei, one for April, the other for May, to Agapia Monastery, during the times of the priest Nicanor Virgil Cândea, Umanismul lui Udrişte Năsturel şi agonia slavonismului cultural în Ţara Românească, in Idem, Raţiunea dominantă, Cluj, Editura Dacia,pp Arcadie Bodali, Semnificaţiile actelor ctitoriceşti în evul mediu românesc, in Anuarul Institutului de istorie A.
Xenopol,p Ibidem. Păuna Cantacuzino, Viper online dating Cantacuzino s wife, has offered a Triod to the village of Recea, pentru pomenirea Măriei sale.
There is also another social level of nobility elite that can be noticed among the women who have made books donations. For instance, the book printed at Rădăuţi, inCeaslov, that l-au cumpărat dumneaei jupâneasa Ecaterina a răposatului Costachi Cantacuzino, biv vel spătar şi l-au dat la schitişorul domniilor sale la Almaş, in Or Canonul Sf.
Spiridon Iaşi,which l-au dat iubitul soţu mieu Nastasia, fiica răposatului vornicului Dumitraşco Paladi, bisăricii noastre din Şerbeşti, in Although the marginal notes do not allow us to make an analysis of the exterior features of women, we consider that these examples may demonstrate that, during the XVII th -XVIII th centuries, the interest for books has not been the men s privilege; this association of man and woman within a family, either lordly or noble, or the donations made of feminine initiative, proves the existence of the same inner impulse, based on the religious climate of the time.
We must also mention that a short regard over Movilă family thesaurus, that reveals both its possessions and the statute of the family heiress, brings out some books, along with the most valuable objects; there were Maria Movilă s books, Ieremia Movilă s daughter, who has been twice married, first to Ştefan Potocki, second to Firley, the Voivode of Sandomierz 23, both representing the Polonaise nobility: trei evangheliare legate în aur pur masiv, fiecare legătură valorând de scuzi de aur şi cinci legate în argint masiv Finally, the feminine reading as a practice and modality of improving the intellectual horizon starts from the way the literacy could open the access to knowledge, at the elite level.
If the feminine attendance to Romanian teaching remains quite ctitor în Moldova medievală, in Anuarul Institutului A. Ioan Cuza,p. XIII,fasc. Even if there were no women of letters in Romanian Countries outside the Carphatians, such as Queen Margot - whose celebrity in European historiography is due to Robert Muchembled commentaries on her written memories 25, or Veronica Franco, Vittoria Colonna, Gaspara Stampa - poetess of the Renaissance, the feminine literacy was not lacking.
We can not omit the difficulty in revealing this phenomenon of feminine literacy from the multitude of documents, partly because of the writers, scribes the women were surrounded by, although there is no way of speaking about a feminine chancellery 26 ; in this way, women have left behind them only a few written signs.
However, some examples allow us to complete the feminine file of literacy: thus, a document from mentions an older one, issued by Ion Vodă s wife, Marica, a zapis făcut de mâna ei miracle watts dating istoric cu pecetea ei Elena, Matei Basarab s wife, as we mentioned before, has been appointed as regent, while the Voivode was going to the Ottoman Empire to receive his reign confirmation, in December ; according to her position, she had to get involve in coordinating the chancellery activity and to keep correspondence in Romanian and Latin; for instance, she has described the battle of Finta and has sealed the document with red sealing wax If we mention some other letters, such as Elisabeta Movilă s Latin letters, written in Februaryor those written in Italian, in by her daughter, Ana Movilă, who s husband was Stanislav Potocki 31, the Polonaise noble, or the Greek correspondence of Vasile Lupu s daughter, Ruxandra, the one married to Timuş Hmelnicki, whose letters were sealed and signed by herself 32, and some others, they are all proving 25 Robert Muchembled, Pătimiri ale femeilor în vremea reginei Margot, Chişinău, Editura Cartier, Sorin Iftimi, op.
Bulat, O mărturie a doamnei Elina despre bătălia de la Finta, in Revista istorică,no.
Memoriile Secţiei 18 21 From the History of Reading. Those letters are more than sequences of women s destinies, as the correspondence between Constantin Brâncoveanu s wife, Maria, and the ruler of Braşov, inconcerning the doom of her daughters 33 proves to be, but also consignments of their educational level, of their knowledge on cultural languages, evidences of their self-image, of the contemporary state authority structure and mechanism.
Diplomatic documents, testaments, the correspondence and marginal notices, giving information about the feminine passion of reading, are all going to complete the image of the feminine elite.
Following another feminine destiny, in fact an amount of asymmetric sequences that allow us to make a comparison between the XVII th and the XVIII th century, we consider a document from miracle watts dating istoric, issued by Gheorghe Ştefan for Antimia, to strength one of her properties; the document specifies that şi ea singură cu mâinile sale le-a făcut lor zapis şi l-a subscris, fiind în cărţi foarte învăţată.
Aşadar şi domnia mea, văzând dania de-a ei bună voie, încă şi de la Domnia Mea am dat şi am întărit slugei noastre, lui Gavriil Jora sluger şi doamnei sale, să le fie lor şi de la domnia mea acel sat mai sus scris Mândreşti dreaptă ocină şi danie şi uric şi întăritură, cu tot venitul neclintit niciodată în veci Few decades latter, inwhile writing his testament in Greek, the Stolnic Matei Creţulescu spoke about the importance of his library, bought from Vienna; there is also an urge for his sons and emphasis his wife s role in their education: când am fost la Viena pentru treaba celor doi copilaşi, ca să înveţe greceşte şi mai vârtos italieneşte şi latineşte, de care mă rog Zoiţei să-mi înveţe copilaşii şi să-i strunească pentru carte de se va putea ca să-i pedepsească să-i înveţe mai bine At the end of the XVIII th century, Tzigara, a man whose work was to take care of the horses, drivers and mail stoppages from Moldavian territory, gave us a few information about his family destiny; thus, he proves that, during the age of Enlightenment, even the families with a lower social statute were having access to education.
Contribuţie documentară, in Revista arhivelor, no.
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Şi avea 33 de ani. Femeie vrednică de respect pentru virtuţile ei şi pentru naşterea ei, pregătită foarte bine în elinească şi împărtăşită cu ştiinţele publice The Pre-Enlightenment climate emphasis the interest in the triumph of rationality, education and intellectual instruction.
If we are interested on an educational pattern, we will find more information about the cantemirian one; we may thus observe that, after his settling in Russia, inDimitrie Cantemir, the scholar prince, has never forget the ideal of giving his children the chance of studying abroad, as we may read in his testament. His correspondence with Peter the Great, that has been commented by Ştefan Ciobanu, reveals the former Moldavian Voivode s predilection for study and soliloquies and also his preoccupation for his children s education 37, whose knowledge of Greek language, even for corresponding, is well-known.
Cantemir s testament has foreseen the same kind of education for all his children, making no difference between the four sons of his first marriage - Matei, Constantin, Şerban and Antioh, and their sister, Maria.
According to Russian and Romanian positivism historiography, it is presumable that Maria s education begun within the femeie străină, having her mother Casandra for learning Greek; then, she has continued her education in Russia, with professor Kondoiti for learning Latin and Italian and Ivan Iliinschi, who thought her Russian Beyond the details about her private life, next to the biographical notes that reveals her privileged statute in Peter the Great s eyes, the correspondence with Antioh Cantemir, her brother, unveils her intellectual neatness.
Her sensibility, her literary horizon, her profound knowledge on Greek and Latin she used for corresponding, all those are revealed by the reflections based on her own reading; she has been provided with books due to her brother, Antioh.
Maria used to read a lot, especially literary and classic, humanist historiography works, Horace, Cornelius Nepos, Flavius Josephus, Appian, Boccaccio, but she was also interested in some books that were quite appreciated in those times, such as the comedies of Juan Batista Diamante, the Spanish writer, and travel diaries.
Examples from the Romanian World the XVII th and the XVIII th Centuries Certainly, the most important aspect is that Maria used to complete her written thoughts with personal assessments, which reveal both her sensibility and her intellectual horizon: cred că vă aduceţi aminte - she wrote refering miracle watts dating istoric Josephus Flavius - cum vă rugam încă de când eraţi la Moscova, să-mi găsiţi această carte, după ce mi-aţi tradus ceva din limba franceză; am presimţirea că ea va fi foarte interesantă, şi întâi voi începe s-o citesc pe ea She has done a bookish selection that proves her passion for literature, but also her craving in reading ceva din astronomie şi geometrie Thus, Maria Cantemir miracle watts dating istoric to be a brightly character of her age and it is quite difficult to appreciate her objectively, considering the default of other contemporary feminine figures; through her own epistolary confessions, she has recommended herself as representative of the feminine intellectual elite, a product of that age, when the humanism features have interfered with the Enlightenment critical spirit.
Her correspondence seems to be more important as it proves her interest in improving her selfhood through reading, so as the yearning to speak about her cultural horizon. She is, in fact, representing a different generation of female readers.
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If we might speak about Elena Basarab in terms of an intellectual woman, whose interest was connected to an intensive way of reading, who has reduced her horizon to religious books to show respect for the church and sacredness s authority 41, we may state that Maria Cantemir represents the modern tendencies; she is, in fact, the product of the Pre-Enlightenment movement, that has been so brightly illustrated by her father, in both Romanian and South-East European culture.
She has thus developed another way of reading, the extensive one, diversified, critical, that does reckon neither the number of pages, nor the domains. But it has no sense to put everything under the sign of generalization; the sources we may study today can only reveal us the isolated portraits of some women of those times elite, whose passion for reading is well-known; we speak about teachable, educated women, that were able to write a letter, to copy a manuscript by themselves, to settle the structure of a testament, to sustain the typographic activity.
Regarding this general context, not even Italy, that had always had a miracle watts dating istoric relationship with the Hellenic world, thanks to remarkable cultural and historical affinities that bound the two peoples together, was an exception. This essay means to focus attention on the characters of the Italian intellectuals, travellers and artists of that time who favoured this great appeal for the Hellenistic civilization, developping in the Italian peninsula a strong philhellenic sentiment, useful for supporting the Greek Risorgimento and for binding the two nations together.
Keywords: Greece; Italy; Europe; Intellectuals; Travellers; Artists; Risorgimento; XVIII Century; XIX Century La particolare visione prospettica dell Occidente europeo ha conferito alla realtà storica della Grecia un inusuale destino: tanto studiata, ammirata, celebrata nel suo passato classico dalla millenaria tradizione, al punto da essere universalmente riconosciuta come perno fondante della cultura e dell identità europea insieme al patrimonio della latinità romana, quanto dimenticata, ignorata, denigrata nelle sue vicende attinenti all epoca moderna e contemporanea, per via della sua configurazione politica, religiosa e socio-culturale dalle molteplici e tutt altro che univoche sfaccettature, al tempo stesso frontiera dell Europa ma parte dell Oriente musulmano, minoranza cristiana ma di culto ortodosso, potenziale erede dell impero ottomano ma elemento conflittuale delle lotte balcaniche 1.
Un aspetto quest ultimo che, non a caso, ha giocato un ruolo assolutamente decisivo nell ambito dei processi di nation-building e state-building vissuti dal Paese, finendo pesantemente per condizionarne il senso identitario e lo sviluppo storico mediante l emergere di un rapporto ambivalente, sia a livello interno che esterno, con la tradizione e la cultura europea occidentale 2. Paschalis M. Kitromilides, Imagined communities and the origins of the national question in the Balkans, in European History Quarterly, vol.
A riaccendere il mito dell Ellade, a lungo sopito con la rilevante eccezione rappresentata dall età dell Umanesimo e del Rinascimento, concorsero indubbiamente alcuni fattori di notevole portata come la diffusione della filosofia dei Lumi, la realizzazione di intense campagne di scavi archeologici su tutte quelle attinenti ai siti di Ercolano e Pompei e la moda di collezionare oggetti antichi a prezzo di qualsiasi sacrificio economico ed espediente più o meno lecito come si datând un jerk dalla dolorosa vicenda dei Marmi di Elgin provenienti dall Acropoli di Atene e traslati a Londra nelil forte sviluppo del movimento neoclassico per merito, Vangelis Kechriotis, Lo stato ellenico, la nazione interna e la nazione esterna: rappresentazioni culturali e configurazioni politiche nel lungo XIX secolo, in Marco Dogo a cura diSchegge d impero, pezzi d Europa.
Hassiotis, La Chiesa greco-ortodossa e la formazione del nazionalismo neogreco durante la dominazione ottomana, in Luciano Vaccaro a cura diStoria religiosa della Grecia, Milano, Centro ambrosiano,pp ; Antonis Liakos, La storia della Grecia come costruzione di un tempo nazionale, in Contemporanea, n.
Clair, That Greece might still be free. Convegno di studio, Atene, ottobreFirenze, L. Olschki, ; Risorgimento greco e filellenismo italiano: lotte, cultura, arte. Il materiale fu trasportato in Gran Bretagna nell arco di diversi anni e una parte della collezione fu mostrata per la prima volta a una ristretta cerchia di visitatori nelsuscitando un enorme impatto dal momento che a Londra 24 27 Intellettuali, viaggiatori e artisti italiani alla riscoperta della Grecia fra XVIII e XIX secolo soprattutto, del suo massimo teorico, il tedesco Johann Joachim Winckelmann.
Rispetto a questo contesto generale, neppure l Italia, da sempre polo privilegiato di relazione con il mondo ellenico, grazie alle notevoli affinità culturali, caratteriali e miracle watts dating istoric esistenti fra i due popoli, fece eccezione.
Anzi, per ciò che concerne la specificità italiana, va sottolineato come essa avesse mantenuto in buona parte intatti per tutto il Medioevo, nonostante il realizzarsi del drammatico scisma che nel aveva spaccato la Cristianità in una Chiesa d oriente sotto il patriarca miracle watts dating istoric Bisanzio e in una Chiesa d occidente sotto il papa di Roma, e durante la prima età moderna, malgrado il crollo dell Impero bizantino avvenuto il 29 maggiogli intensi vincoli di collegamento culturale, economico e la scultura greca dell età classica era rimasta fino ad allora praticamente sconosciuta, in quanto si aveva familiarità solo con copie romane e tardoelleniche.
L intera collezione fu acquistata dal governo inglese nel e presa in custodia dal londinese British Museum, dove si trova ancora oggi in esposizione, nonostante le vivaci polemiche suscitate e le tante richieste, finora infruttuose, di restituzione avanzate dal governo greco e da molti membri della comunità internazionale.
Decisivi, in tal senso, anche sotto la dominazione ottomana, erano stati da un lato la città di Venezia, in virtù dello strategico ruolo di collante naturale esercitato verso l altra sponda del Mediterraneo tramite la lunga presenza sia militare che politica nelle Isole Ionie, al punto da divenire uno dei massimi centri dell Ellenismo sottomesso 9, e, dall altro lato, l esistenza di grandi comunità elleniche in città quali Venezia, per l appunto, Trieste, Padova, Genova, Livorno, Pisa, Ancona, Napoli, Messina