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E-mail: brie igri. Immigrants from Countries of the Former Soviet Union Ethnic Conflict or Geopolitical Interests? A Pattern Study for the East Ethnicity and religious confession are concepts around which discussion and controversy arise, generating emotions and feelings of extreme intensity.
Each of us belongs to such communities. By default, there is a strong pressure on us to be subjective. Intercultural dialogue can be successfully provided where a community that is aware of the others comes to communicate, to cooperate, and to build the structure of a multicultural society.
Studies have shown that ethnic and religious diversity is poor when missing openness to other communities.
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On the other hand, this diversity, as it is the case throughout Central and South-Eastern Europe, reveals the less desirable realities. Today we are talking about discrimination, marginalization, low-status minorities, peripheral societies, inequitable distribution of resources; therefore, we can conclude that the majority-minority relations management highlights the demographic aspect quantity and the sociological aspect, i.
Keywords: ethnicity, religion, intercultural dialogue, European border space. The current context of crisis, which is not only a financial and economic crisis, but also a political, social, mental, and even ideological crisis, shows a throw at the forefront of discussions, on the one hand, of the poly dating portland to strengthen the dialogue and on the other hand, the trends to return to certain forms of nationalism and cultural cleavage.
Without advocating for one or other of these trends we see that Europe is at a crossroads.
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The old forms of social-political and economic life are redefined. Even relations between people and between communities resettle on new organization and relational forms. In a Europe without borders, nederlandse dating site and more types of borders appear; on another occasion we called them symbolic and ideological frontiers Brie and Horga,Brie, ; Horga and Brie, : We refer to them as symbolic and ideological frontiers as they, most often, are not tangible.
From Europeanism to nationalism, from ethno-religious identity to cultural identity, and to social cleavages, the wide range of approaches of these borders could continue in the context of implementation of an effective European Neighbourhood Policy.
The physical border of the European Union's external limit can "open" in time, but new types of frontiers can occur between people and communities.
Immigrants, for instance, live in the European Union maintaining their own identity, thus creating a world that "refuses integration" by the specificity that it develops; we are able to identify a cleavage between this kind of community and the majority, a cleavage that can take the form of symbolic cultural borders that sometimes turns into poly dating portland "external" border.
In the current context, many European societies develop a strong sense of "self-protection", which takes not only a form of economic nature, but also one of preservation of their identity and culture. Moments of crisis or excitement can easily lead to the emergence of nationalist sentiments that dilute the "Europeanist" perception of the border. Such a dilution occurs in parallel with the strengthening of identitary-community cohesion, of the spirit of ethno-cultural belonging to nation.
It is a time when many European nations reaffirmed, "they regain identity" by returning to the national, that despite the "unity" and solidarity affirmed at the level of European institutions through officials of Member States.
National borders, created in different periods and historical and political contexts have contributed to national economic integration and cultural periphery. In the current context, with the EU accession of the Central and Eastern Europe states, there was a reverse phenomenon: the disintegration of the national market and the administrative decentralization have led to integration of peripheries york dating de viteză the national systems, 12 Ethnicity, Religion and Intercultural Dialogue in the European Border Space including the cultural one.
Powerful currents are currently channeled in the direction of cross-border poly dating portland, erodig the idea of the national bloc, compact and relatively isolated Muller and Schultz, In terms of cultural relations it is obvious that we are dealing nowadays with a streamlining of trades, without being able to talk about poly dating portland loss of national, regional or local specificity.
The cultural specificity brings into question the cultural border. It separates the areas of own cultural identity, building what we call the European cultural space of the cultures. The cultural diversity records the plurality of ideas, images, values and expressions.
All this is possible through a great variety of expression and through poly dating portland presence of a large number of parallel national, ethnic, regional, local, etc.
Moreover, in this context, some authors talk about the "revenge identity" and the "feeling of return to historical, national and cultural identity" especially in an area such as the Central and Eastern Europe, and a historical time in which the specificity and the national identity are bound to redefine themselves through opening to new geo-political, historical, cultural configurations David and Florea, In the approach, surely an important element of reference is given: subor multinational, local or diaspora, not least by the European and international context Bennett, Beyond any approach, the image of European culture has been given by associating concepts of people-culture-history and territory that give a certain local specificity.
Under this report, we identify, beyond a European culture, a cultural space with national, regional and local specificities. Therefore we identify at least two European cultural identity constructions: a culture of cultures, namely a cultural space with a strong identity at individual, local, regional, and national levels, or a cultural archipelago, namely a common cultural space interrupted by discontinuities.
Whatever the perspective, the existence of a European cultural area is not denied, even if it is either the diversity or the "continuity interrupted" Horga and Brie, : But we increasingly find that Europe is at a turning point, poly dating portland terms of more than ideology. The association poly dating portland state-nation-territory-border involves some nuances. In the current geopolitical context, we could say that the era of nation states, as known to date, is redefined, reshaping it in a different sense.
Borders between communities have been increasingly occurring within states. Unintegrated immigrants unwanted by the majority! Discrimination and marginalization are forcing them to isolate and to respond sometimes as parallel "existential forms" to the state in which they live.
Our approach could be too simplistic if we remain only to debate about classic immigrants or national minorities. Introducing the concept of extraterritoriality in the approach of ethnicity and intercultural dialogue seems 13 Mircea BRIE mandatory dating în maryland poly dating portland proper understanding of European realities in this field.
A subject that has been intensively debated at European level is the Roma, the Gypsies. Comments relating to the expulsion of Roma from France and their forced repatriation to Romania and Bulgaria have filled the pages of the European newspapers.
Events in mid September in Bulgaria relating to the "revolt" brought against the Roma in many cities of the country south of the Danube have exposed a cruel reality that needs to be on the agenda of all institutions of Europe.
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Extremist groups in Bulgaria gathered important masses of people who were not limited to racial chanting, but they also became violent and destroyed Roma properties. Shocking was the extremist calling for chasing the Roma from Bulgaria. France repatriates them in Bulgaria and Bulgarians banishes them from the country. Roma are members of a great people living in many European countries, but a people without its own a territory and without its own state. Tackling the Roma in Europe is therefore a problem of Europe and not of a certain state, not even of the South Central-Eastern Europe, as it is the very wrong impression of the West.
Etra-teritoriality, both as a concept and as a starting point in managing the problems of an ethnic minority but not national! Another example, which falls somewhat in the same category of discussions on "non-traditional minority" is in Central and Eastern Europe; there are issues related to granting dual citizenship to members of ethnic groups.
The most present in the mass-media were the granting of dual citizenship for the Romanian ethnics in Moldova and granting the dual citizenship for the Hungarian ethnics from countries around Hungary during public debates, a strong emphasis has been put on the pros and cons in the disputes from Slovakia and Romania, where Hungarian communities are more numerous.
The topic has gained special importance by the fact that this dual citizenship, even if individually granted, peaked so high that is sent the message that dual citizenship was granted in mass to a group, to a community.
Hence the hope or the fear for the possible creation of "Little Hungaries" in southern Slovakia and in central Romania. Cultural poly dating portland, pluralism and multiculturalism are specific elements of the European space.
European integration is complex and it does not require, nor is it conditioned by the idea of cultural unity, or by the existence of a common culture to include all Europeans.
Specificity and diversity belong to the realm of intercultural dialogue, prerogatives of the European peoples.
Each of the Poly dating portland societies must find its own integrated solutions, depending on the specific traditions and its institutions. European societies and cultures do not repel each other in the European construction equation. It is time that everyone learns from the experience and the expertise of others. Central and Eastern European countries issued by the communist authoritarian regimes have 14 Ethnicity, Religion and Intercultural Dialogue in the European Border Space experimented in the post a transition to a democratic model.
This democratic model assumes, however, the acceptance of diversity, including those claims that had acknowledged the minorities. In some cases, the opportunities for cultural expression and political responses to these claims were not really the desired ones and thus, unfortunately, military settlements were sought. Over a long period of time, the minorities in Western Europe have gradually won self-recognition and equity in distribution of national resources sudden changes were recorded in the central-eastern continent that poly dating portland with a much higher intensity, both through the minority claims and the resistance of the majority.
Not the same situation can be found in minority rights from the old European colonies.
Their proposals raised issues related to the question of poly dating portland status, financial resources and, finally, the relations between European cultures and those from the world where these populations originate La culture au cur, The problem of immigrants, their access and integration, is another sensitive and important issue from the perspective of inter-ethnic or interreligious relations.
Diversity is not only ethno-religious, it is also cultural and mental. The attitudes of Europeans towards immigrants have not remained constant over time. If in the 70s the European countries were favourable to immigration, and in some cases such as West Germany and Switzerland, immigration was encouraged, as it addressed employment, then things have changed.
In the late 80s, because of the overwhelming number of immigrants and their "non-European" character, the old continent proved to be less welcoming. Yet Europe has tried to cultivate a climate of openness and generosity.
Europe is by nature a pluralist society, rich in cultural and social traditions that will further diversify" Tandonnet, Is it just a utopia this European optimism that Maxime Tandonnet identified? The presence of Islam in Europe is a certainty, but its Europeanization remains a contentious issue. As the French academician Gilles Kepel noted "neither the bloodshed of the Muslims in North Africa, fighting in French uniforms during both world wars, nor the toil of the immigrant workers, living in deplorable conditions, who rebuilt France and Europe for nothing afterdid not tranform their children in European citizens in the true sense of the word" Leiken, 1.
If Europeans are able to assimilate Muslim immigrants, or if there will be a conflict of values remains an open issue. Stanley Hoffman observed that more and more Westerners are afraid of poly dating portland invaded not by armies and tanks, but by the immigrants who speak other languages and worship other gods from other poly dating portland and will take 15 Mircea BRIE their jobs, will occupy their land, will live far from the prosperity system and will threaten their way of life" Stanley, 30, Huntington, Alternating negotiation and conflict, communication and doubt, the Muslims poly dating portland building step by step an individual and collective identity "that is likely to be both pure and hybrid, local and transnational" Saint-Blanc, The multiplication of identity vectors contributes to a fluidity of symbolic borders and to an individuality of communities from diaspora.
A cleavage is identified poly dating portland the Islamic community, by comparison to the wider community. This cleavage sometimes takes the form of internal and external borders, all at the same time. Such a reality is amplified by the creation of community models in which identity features are transferred from the sphere of ethnic or national Turkey, Maghreb, Arabs to the religion, i. Muslim, Islamic Saint-Blanc, In this model of behavior we can observe the numerous behavioral reactions of Islamic communities that achieve a solidarity going slightly beyond ethnic or national differences.
Such a reality is determined by the discriminatory attitude of the majority. Many stereotypes not only lead to a generalized stereotyped immage, but also to a solidarity around Islamic values even of those who are not into religious practices, maybe even atheists. The phenomenon can be reversed: leaving from Islamic solidarity can lead to ethnic solidarity.